Kolapo O Adeleke, Adeola O Adedara, Amos O Abolaji, Jones O Moody
Inequitable access to assisted reproductive technologies including in vitro fertilization to treat infertility remains a challenge for those living in low and middle-income countries. However, medicinal plants have been employed in traditional medicine as alternative remedies to address the problems of infertility. This study was aimed at investigating the male fertility enhancing activities of Berlinia grandiflora stem bark. The powdered sample of B. grandiflora (BG) stem bark was macerated in methanol at room temperature for 72 h, the resulting extract (pilot methanol) was tested for possible phytochemicals and evaluated on Wistar rats for toxicity and male fertility enhancing potentials. Proximate analysis was carried out on the stem bark powder and was also successively macerated into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The extracts were investigated using Wistar rats (sperm indices and hormonal testosterone) and Drosophila melanogaster [survival study, mating latency (ML), copulation duration (CD), fly emergence/% fertility] models. Mesterolone (10 mg/kg) and Sildenafil (2 mg/kg) were used as standards for Wistar rats and Drosophila models respectively. All data were analyzed using Graph pad prism 5.02, level of significance was placed at p ≤ 0.05. Results of acute toxicity and survival study using Wistar rats and D. melanogaster respectively showed that BG stem bark extracts are safe above 5 g/kg dose level. 600 mg/kg bwt. of BG pilot methanol extract had the most significant sperm count and Testosterone level respectively (112.92 ± 8.97 x 106/mL, 0.51 ± 0.15 IU/L) when compared to the untreated group (83.27±3.51 x 106/mL, 0.39 ± 0.03 IU/L) and Mesterolone (107 ± 5.08 x 106/mL, 1.13 ± 0.12 IU/L). There was a significant increase in sperm motility in the group treated with 600 mg/kg pilot methanol extract and it was dose-dependent. 400 mg/kg of successive dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol extracts of B. grandiflora stem bark showed a significant reduction in ML (p≤ 0.01) when compared to the untreated group (1 ml of 0.1% Tween 80 per kg diet). DCM extract showed highest % fertility increase (50.9 ± 8.2%) in 400 mg/kg (p ≤ 0.001) relative to negative control (0.00 ± 0.48). Sildenafil (2 mg/kg) had significant mating latency and copulation duration but a non-significant % increase (6.10 ± 2.31%) infertility In this study, DCM extract of Berlinia grandiflora stem bark was proven to be an effective male fertility enhancer and this has justified its use as a fertility booster in ethnomedicine.
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