Pradnya Jagtap, Nayana Mirke, Shabnam Mulani, Prajakta Tanpure, Ravindra Patil
Glaucoma is a complex condition of the eye. It is an ophthalmic neurodegenerative condition and is characterized by raised intraocular pressure. When left untreated, patients may gradually experience visual field loss, and even lose their sight completely. It is the second leading cause of blindness around the globe. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve. Glaucoma is often associated with an increased pressure of the eye. The two most common forms of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma, affect more than 2 million Americans and are increasing in prevalence. Many forms of glaucoma have no warning signs. Risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma include older age, black race, Hispanic origin, family history of glaucoma, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for primary angle-closure glaucoma include older age, Asian descent, and female sex. Advanced disease at initial presentation and treatment no adherence put patients with glaucoma at risk of disease progression to blindness. Diagnosis of glaucoma requires careful optic nerve evaluation and functional studies assessing a patient’s visual field. The goal of treatment with eye drops, laser therapy, or surgery is to slow visual field loss by lowering intraocular pressure. to lowering morbidity from glaucoma through early identification of high-risk patients and by emphasizing treatment adherence in patients with glaucoma. This review provides a summary of reported associations between different systemic medications and the risk of developing glaucoma or experiencing disease progression. The article provides a brief, synoptic overview of this condition and its pharmacological treatment options.
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