Abdul Kader Mohiuddin
UTIs are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uro-pathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. UTIs typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. If left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences. Adult women are 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI, with almost half of them experiencing at least one episode of UTI during their lifetime. Uncomplicated lower UTI remains one of the most commonly treated infections in primary care. A complicated UTI is an infection associated with a condition, such as a structural or functional abnormality of the genitourinary tract, or the presence of an underlying disease. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. The paper reviews several chronic conditions that are risk factors for UTIs in human being.
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